What is Non-Precision Approach?


In the previous article, we learned about ILS or precision approaches but not all airports have ILS so what kind of approach do pilots take? These are called non-precision approaches and are called so because the pilots don’t have vertical and horizontal guidance until touchdown and most importantly an aircraft cannot autoland with a non-precision approach hence the use of such approaches have visibility restrictions. They are approaches done with the lesser use of automation and require more manual flying.

The Main reason why a non-precision approach is needed is that airports like Innsbruck, Austria which has terrain all around the airport cannot use ILS since the aircraft cannot approach the runway in one straight line. There are many types of Non-precision approaches, in this article, I will briefly discuss some of them

Visual approach:

In this type of approach the pilot is navigating the aircraft based on visual cues and has full control of the aircraft with autopilot disengaged, the best example for such an approach is Samos airport (LGSM) pilots are flying IFR only till 4-5 nautical miles away from the Samos VOR (SAM) which is the only navigation aid, after which a series of visual cues such as villages, pier, white shed building helps pilot navigate and check their altitude and speed. The aircraft lines up to the runway only in the last few minutes of the approach making it dangerous and difficult.
Another great example is Leh, India where pilots disengage autopilot at above 10000ft and visually maneuver the aircraft around a hill to line up with the runway.
The below pic shows a Samos approach.




RNAV Approach:

RNAV is also known as area navigation that allows aircrafts to choose any course within a network of navigation beacons such as a VOR instead of flying directly to and from beacons, RNAV used to be called random navigation and hence earned its name.
RNAV is also based on GPS and GNSS or Global Navigation Satellite System allowing aircrafts to navigate based on latitude and longitude and no ground based navigation aids, today almost all commercial aircraft are RNAV equipped and fly RNAV SID( standard instrument departure) and STAR( standard terminal arrival route) and most of the High altitude IFR navigation is done using GPS and GNSS waypoints.
The major advantage of GNSS based RNAV is helping pilots land at airports where there is lot of terrain and inoperative or no precision approach available. RNAV takes the aircraft carefully around the terrain to a few hundred feet above the runway at which pilots will take over manual control once visual with the runway. Best example of GNSS based RNAV approach used around terrain is Kathmandu airport (VNKT).
The Below pic is a RNAV approach for Runway 02 at Kathmandu.



VOR-DME approach

A VOR is a ground based navigation aid which stands for Very High frequency Omnidirectional beacon, VORs have a specific frequency that aircrafts tune into and fly Radials and bearing to navigate to and From a VOR.
Most airports have a VOR station beside the runway or in the vicinity of it, a VOR approach as the name suggests uses this VOR station as the primary navigational aid. The aircraft tracks the specified VOR radial to the runway since there is no glideslope to a VOR approach pilots use charts and DME(distance measuring equipment) to maintain the vertical profile , since the VOR station cannot be on the runway the aircraft is not perfectly lined up to the runway and has to be done manually when the pilots have visual with the runway. Since it is a non-precision approach it has a higher Minimum decision altitude (MDA). The below pic is a VOR approch for Runway 09 at Mumbai, VABB.



NDB approach

NDB stands for Non-directional beacon and is a ground based navigation aid that uses ADF radio, NDB is very rarely practiced with big commercial jets like the A320, B737 etc , its mostly used for flight training purposes, it is said to be the most disliked approach by pilots.
When an aircraft ADF receiver is tuned into the frequency of an NDB the needle will point towards the direction where the NDB is situated, hence it’s called a non-directional beacon since one cannot fly radials or bearings using an NDB,
This approach is disliked because NDB signals are affected by
1) Night effect – Radio waves reflected back by ionosphere can cause NDB signal strength to fluctuations 30 to 60 nautical miles from the transmitter, especially just before sunrise and just after sunset.
2) Terrain effect – High terrain like mountains, hills and cliffs can reflect radio waves, giving an error in readings on the ADF receiver.
Electrical effect, Shoreline effect, Bank effect etc are more factors that induce a lot of errors while doing an NDB approach.

In conclusion, non-precision approaches are performed everyday by hundreds of skilled pilot, its more challenging and difficult than Precision approaches due to the reduced use of automation, VOR and Rnav are the most popularly used Non-precision approach.
Thanks for reading

All Aeronautical charts in the article are to be used for flight simulation purposes only.

How does a pilot land the plane?


Most People often are intrigued by how airplanes land, as an aspiring pilot myself the approach and landing is the most fascinating phase of flight for me since an aircraft flying at 900kmph approximately slows down to roughly to 250kmph and a number of controlled parameters lets the aircraft smoothly touchdown. It’s true that Flying is the 2nd best thrill known to mankind, landing is the first!


In this article, I will discuss the most popular and safe technique of approach that is used at almost all major or smaller airports in India and around the world.

What is ILS?
This type of approach is also called the Instrument approach or ILS, the pilots have horizontal and vertical guidance to land the aircraft. The primary flight display (PFD) as shown in the picture will have 2 diamonds shaped indicators that help pilots perfectly line up to the center of the runway and descend onto it on a uniform glide angle that is rough 3 degrees, London city airport in the UK has a glide angle of 5.5 degrees making it one of the steepest ILS approaches in the world that only a few pilots are certified to operate.


Localizer:

The horizontal guidance is offered by a component called the localizer, when the aircraft is on an intercept heading and upon receiving ATC approval the pilots arm the Localizer on the aircraft autopilot system, the ILS system uses radio waves to communicate with the Navigational radio equipment on the aircraft, it is tuned into specific frequency of the ILS which different for each runway, once the aircraft is in the range of the Localizer the aircraft automatically lines up to the runway.

Glideslope:

Once localizer is captured the pilots arm the approach mode of the autopilot which captures the vertical guidance system or the Glideslope component of the ILS, using this as the reference along with PAPI lights the pilot know if their altitude is perfect or below/above the required glide path. Generally, the autopilot descends on the glideslope and pilots disengage the autopilot and take manually control below 1000ft above ground, even while the Autopilot is disengaged the ILS indicators still show helping the pilots remain on the optimum vertical profile. Maintaining the optimum vertical profile is very important since it’s the minimum safe altitude (MSA), aircraft altitude being below MSA can risk collision with a building, terrain etc.

What is PAPI?



Precision approach path indicator or PAPI are 4 lights at the ends of the runways that are equipped with ILS, they are either red or white they indicate the pilots if they are following  the optimum approach glide path or are above/below it. 2 red 2 white lights means that the aircraft is descending at optimum glide angle, 3 white 1 red means that the aircraft is slightly higher than the glide path, 3 red 1 white means the aircraft is slightly below glide path, all 4 white means the aircraft is too high and all 4 being red means the aircraft is too low in that last 2 cases usually the pilots go around and come back for a more stable approach.


PAPI lights are very useful to pilots after they disengage the autopilot and take manual control since
They cannot look into the PFD for reference.


What is CAT I, II, III ILS approach?

    
ILS approaches are categorized into CAT I, II, IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC these categories are based on the RVR or Runway visual range, basically, the difference between the categories are the runway visibility during approach. Categories of ILS are also based on Decision Height (DH) it is a specific height above ground during approach the pilots decide to continue approach or declare a missed approach and go around, at DH the aircraft should be stable and at the optimum glide path and the pilots should have the required visual reference to continue with the approach.

CAT I – Decision height is not lower than 200ft and RVR not less than 550 meters.
CAT II – a decision height lower than 200ft but not lower than 100ft and an RVR not less than 300m
CAT IIIA – A decision Height lower than 100ft or no Decision height but an RVR not less than 175m
CAT IIIB-A decision Height lower than 50ft or no Decision height and an RVR not less than 50m
CAT IIIC-No decision height and RVR limitations,
CAT IIIC is a concept that is only theoretical since there can practically never be 0 visibility or an RVR less than 50m is very rare and no runway in the world is CAT IIIC certified yet it.

These are published by DGCA and each aviation regulatory has its own specifications.
Apart from DGCA regulations airline SOP also dictates pilots to perform a mandatory autoland when there is an RVR lower than a certain threshold, an autoland can be performed only on ILS equipped runways since it’s a precisional approach. Only certain airports in India are CAT III certified like Delhi and Kolkata, hence in the airports that don’t have the certification an aircraft cannot land when the RVR falls below the minima, they will have to delay take off to let the weather clear or divert to an alternate airport if already en route. CAT III equipped runways to require a complex high-intensity approach lighting system that help pilots look out for traffic during taxi and landing. Since the DH is less or no DH at all the pilots have to be very careful to make sure the runway is vacant, they have lesser time to initiate a go-around due to a low DH.

In India generally, Pilots don’t take manual control during low RVR conditions, however, FAA allows the pilot to take manual control during a CAT III approach only in the presence of a HUD or a head-up display.

Alternatives of ILS:

1)MLS :
MLS stands for microwave landing system and was used in the 1970s in parts of Europe and Russia, it used microwaves instead of radio. It did not gain popularity because of lesser investments and the rise of the Global navigation satellite system (GNSS)
2)TLS
TLS or a transponder landing system is an all-weather precision landing system that uses the transponder in the aircraft and the ILS equipment to create a precision approach at a location where an ILS would normally not be available
3)GLS
GLS or GBAS (ground-based augmentation system) landing system is a GNSS dependent alternative to ILS which uses a single GBAS airport ground station to transmit corrected GNSS data to GLS equipped aircraft to enable them to fly a precision approach with much greater flexibility.
Both the aircraft and airport have to be GLS equipped.

In conclusion, the ILS is the most widely used system for landing and it can be used with any aircraft that is capable of IFR navigation. Its only limitation that it cannot be used in areas with terrain where RNAV is generally used which is GNSS dependent.

I hope you enjoyed reading.

Why Kingfisher Airlines Failed?


Establishing an airlines company is difficult, but maintaining it over the years sustainably is even more strenuous.  Kingfisher, the King Of Good Time, was one of the largest passenger airlines. It was established in 2003 by a Bengaluru-based company called United Breweries Group.  They soon succeeded to be India’s fifth largest passenger airline that provided both national and international flights at flexible fares to its customers. 

Over 1 million people traveled using the services of this airline during the month of May in 2009. This tremendously boosted its market share among other airlines in India. In 2011 Kingfisher also won the Skytrax award for being India’s best airline. But why would this airlines no more reach the sky? 

What happened to the King Of Good Times? 

What went wrong? 

Kingfisher, also known as KFA launched with great fanfare as a premium class airline is no more in function. If you are eager/interested to know why keep reading.  

Vijay Mallya, the owner of Kingfisher was an experienced businessman in the sector of breweries. He has acquired fame as a liquor baron. In spite of his skills in that sector, he lacked experience when it came to managing businesses such as airlines company. Due to this, he was unable to provide inspiring and effective leadership to the Kingfisher team. Two decisions made by him, within a couple of years after launching KFA, have utmost significance. 

Acquisition of Air Deccan 

The first was the acquisition of Air Deccan which was a no-frills service. Though KFA obtained all the aircraft of Air Deccan and its market, the former also inherited its losses. 

Expansion into the International Arena 

Another decision that impacted the efficiency of KFA was the sudden launch of international services. Immediately after acquiring Air Deccan, KFA entered the international arena. This entry into a large market would have been ideal after consolidating the domestic service which had by then captured a large share of the Indian market. 

KFA’s international venture was a thorough failure. Indeed, it was destined to be so. How could a man who lacked experience in running domestic airline survive in the rough waters of international competition? The international skies were dominated by the likes of Emirates and Etihad and each had its diehard fans. Breaking their monopoly was too difficult a task for the nascent KFA, and its international venture misfired shortly after its launch. 

Lack of Stability at the Apex Level of Management 

Another reason attributed to the decline and downfall of KFA is the lack of continuity at the apex level of management. As stated earlier, the owner of KFA was a greenhorn in the airline business, and it was the CEO who guided its course. But no CEO remained with KFA for more than a year. If KFA appointed an experienced CEO like Gopinath of Air Deccan and kept him for a full tenure of five years, things would have been somewhat different. 

Mallay’s business interests were many and desperate apart from breweries and KFA. The breweries were managed by experienced hands, so his liquor business flourished. KFA was not that fortunate. The owner due to his political (Vijay Mallya was a Rajya Sabha MP) and business commitments was not able to give KFA the attention it needed. 

Switching from Premium Class Airline to the Low Budget Segment

KFA took off as a premium class airline catering to the needs of luxury-loving business executives and politicians. It built up its brand systematically over a short period of time. But it lost its sheen when its switched to the low-cost segment. 

Sailing in the low-cost segment was not smooth. The segment was dominated by players like Indigo, Spicejet and others. It was difficult, especially in the domestic sector. KFA faced stiff competition, and its dream of making a fast buck lay shattered. KFA’s service deteriorated over time, and its customer shifted loyalties to better airlines.   

The downfall of KFA from being one of the best airlines in India is due to the lack of effective decision made by the team. Acquiring the loss of Air Deccan, the sudden launch of the service into the international arena and its change in segments which gave rise to competition are major factors which led to its shut down. 


External factors such as the high cost of aviation fuel would also be responsible. KFA’s expenditure on fuel kept mounting. This was experienced by all airlines including KFA’s competitors, but they came up with strategies to overcome the challenge.

Thanks for reading!

Suggested article: Why circular runway can never be reality?

Why Circular Runways may never be reality?

Why Circular Runways may never be reality
Courtesy: BBC News
The concept of circular runways aka ‘The endless runway' is a concept that dates back to experiments in the 1960s and is currently being pursued and researched by the National Aerospace Laboratory in the Netherlands. The biggest advantage of circular runways is that an aircraft can land and take off from any direction thus eliminating the dreaded crosswinds, but does the concept work other than in theory? I'm afraid it may have more challenges than advantages.

Some of the advantages are:

1) The capacity of an airport with an Endless Runway is at least similar to that of a conventional airport with four runways, while the length of the circular runway is comparable to three. This helps in having traffic active on the same circular runway.
2) Dangerous crosswinds are avoided as a different arrival point in the circular runway can be chosen such that there are headwinds.
3) The terminal is constructed in the center of the airport hence saving on the amount of land that is cleared.

What are the challenges?

The biggest challenge is for pilots to be able to take off and land an aircraft from a banked runway. Starting from the inner part of the circle on a flat surface, the bank angle will gradually increase to the outside. Because of the centrifugal forces, a starting aircraft at the middle of the circle will move to the outer part until taking off. There is less scope for error since the aircraft wings can easily hit the runway due to the sloped nature of the runway, hence making it more difficult for pilots and less safe. The pilot also has to constantly steer the aircraft after touch down in order to maintain the curved path and during high speeds the steering is dangerous. If nose wheel steering fails the aircraft will crash and there is nothing the pilots can do since using asymmetrical thrust to steer takes more time and is unstable. A rejected takeoff may cause a collision with traffic landing or taking off because a rejected takeoff is unpredictable and the braking distance is dependent on a lot of factors.





How will ILS work on a circular runway?

ILS (Instrument Landing System) is a precisional approach that almost all runways are equipped with that help pilots to line up and descend onto the runway. ILS is the several antennas at the end of the runway that uses radio waves to communicate with the aircraft’s autopilot. Circular runways will need multiple ILS antennas and the pilots can use ILS only to a certain point in the approach hence making even ILS a non-precisional approach. It would be impossible for an aircraft to perform an auto-land on a circular runway, hence making them a nightmare in low visibility conditions.

Challenges faced during icy and rainy conditions:

When it’s raining the water constantly runs off the sloped runway making the aircraft more prone to skidding off the runway during takeoff roll or landing. Under icy conditions, a circular runway is an invitation for disaster since it’s difficult for an aircraft to remain stable on a conventional runway when there is ice build-up. Researchers have proposed a solution to heat up the runway to remove ice but it’s not feasible to heat up such large areas.





Cost and feasibility:

The estimated cost of building a circular runway is almost 1.5 times the cost of building a conventional airport. The cost is, even more, considering the training of pilots and air traffic controllers. Aviation today has been built on decades of convention and regulations, a circular runway will make most of them obsolete and overall a hard experience for the flight crew to adapt to it. The circular runway has a minimum diameter of 3.5 kilometers in order for the passengers to feel lesser g-force, this large area can be used only for major cities that handle a lot of traffic. If a circular runway is built what can be done with the old conventional airport? A city cannot obviously have both. It does not seem feasible to clear out such large areas in major cities to build circular runway airports, at the same time having to demolish the old conventional airport, after it’s completed. Considering the challenges the pilots face along with the safety concerns, conventional airports emerge triumphantly.

In conclusion, a circular runway is definitely a revolutionary concept and in theory is very successful but when applied to the reality and exposed to different scenarios it is definitely not feasible or safe.

Thanks for reading!

Suggested article: How to be an airline pilot in India?



How to be an airline pilot in India?


How to be an airline pilot in India?

In this article I will give a detailed breakdown of everything one needs to become an airline pilot in India, I will give my personal opinion and advice and also clear some common misconceptions that people generally have.

The first misconception I would clear is that a commercial pilot license course is not a degree or a diploma, at the end of it you are issued licenses and not a degree certificate.

The Indian Government regulatory body for civil aviation is DGCA(directorate general of civil aviation) They issue and maintain a record of all licenses issued to pilots and AME(aircraft maintenance engineers) including medical certificates.

There is no age limit to becoming a pilot from above 18 to 65 years of age one can become a commercial pilot at any time, however, airline hiring process limits the age to 35-40 years of age.

most of you reading this would probably decide to fly right after 12th or consider doing an undergraduate degree, its a personal choice and both pros and cons.

Types of Pilots license

A commercial Pilot’s License or CPL is a license that allows one to fly an endorsed aircraft and get paid for it, A CPL expires when one turns 65 years of age.
A Private Pilot’s license or PPL is a license that allows one to fly an aircraft only for a hobby, leisure or personal transport purposes and not allowed to be paid to fly, It is still valid above 65 years of age.
A Students Pilots license or SPL is a license that allows one to fly and train in a DGCA approved flight school.
Since a SPL can be issued at the age of 16 you can actually start flying and gain hours even before completing 12th std but a CPL would be issued only after you turn 18.

Requirements to become a commercial pilot

The first requirement is to have Mathematics and Physics in 12th standard from any recognized board. This is not a requirement for flight schools abroad but however, when you return to India it is not possible to convert the licenses without Maths and Physics in 12th. Suppose one does not have Physics and Maths can Enroll into NIOS(national Institute if open schooling) and pass these subjects.

Medical Certificates:

All pilots have to undergo an extensive medical exam every year,
Obtaining the initial medical certificates is time-consuming and can be done before completing 12th or in the final year of the degree to save time.
There are 2 types of Medical exams with respect to aviation,

Class 2 medicals:

Class 2 medical exam basically consists of Blood tests, ECG, Chest X-ray, Vision test, ENT etc. Class 2 is not considered to be very strict and most generally healthy people can easily pass it.
For flight training, glider licenses or even a PPL class 2 certificate is sufficient.
How to get a class 2 medical test done?
http://dgca.nic.in/medical/class2-ind.htm in this link you will find all the medical examiners who are approved to conduct a class 2 exam, contact them to set up an appointment and follow the instructions.
Class 2 medical exams take about 4-5 hours and at the end of It a CA35 form will be given upon clearing the medicals. The doctor will take care of further documentation.
Medical records of a Pilot are maintained in Unique File Numbers which will be given after clearing class 2.
The final Class 2 assessment itself will be Couriered home after 2-3 months or you would be required to collect it from DGCA directly.
Class 2 medicals cost an approximate of 3000-5000 rupees depending on the doctor.

Class 1 Medicals:

Class 1 is a more extensive test, Initial medicals are conducted only by the Indian Airforce hospitals and 2 private hospitals while renewals can be done by many private aeromedical examiners.
After the class 2 final assessment is obtained you can apply to clear class 1 medicals which will cost Rs3000-4000 at Airforce hospitals like AFCME in Delhi, IAM in Bangalore etc.
It’s not very hard to clear for a healthy person, they do not make you run on treadmills as people usually assume.
Class 1 is required to get a CPL issued. One can go for Class 1 and 2 medicals even before the 12th standard is completed to help speed up the process of Flight training.
Class 1 is valid for 1 year while class 2 is valid for 2 years, The renewals are quicker and easier than initial.

Can people who wear spectacles become pilots?
Yes! Your vision should be 6/6 with or without spectacles.
DGCA has published all the medical documents related to conditions like Asthma, Diabetes etc and are fairly easy to understand.

Next step is to Enroll at a Flight school

There are a number of flight schools to choose from, some of the best ones in India are IGURA, Chimes aviation academy, NFTI, MPFC etc.
One can join a flight school only after 12th and CPL is issued only after attaining the age of 18, however, PPL is issued at the age of 17.

Ground school and CPL exams:

There are 5 exams that you need to clear for CPL, These exams are valid for 5 years and you need not have any flying experience or even enroll at a flight school to clear them, only a computer number is required to attempt the exams. The subjects and common books that can be used to study for them:
1) Air navigation by Oxford aviation series and Wg. Cdr R.K. Bali(Retd)
2) Aviation meteorology by Group Captain IC Joshi
3) Air regulations by Wg. Cdr R.K. Bali(Retd)
4) Technical general – Oxford aviation series
5) Technical specific – This is specific to the Type of aircraft you will do your flying training with.
Ground school is also provided by the flight school or you can clear the subjects by attending several private ground schools across the country that help you clear the exams quicker.
DGCA exams are conducted online every 3 months in major cities across the country.

Flying training:

In order to get a CPL, you have to fly 185 hours in a single engine aircraft that is approved by DGCA, in India we use Cessna 172,152 mainly with some schools having Diamond DA40.
At the end of the course at a flight school, you will be issued a CPL, Instrument rating (IR) and a Multi-engine rating (MER).
An Instrument rating certifies a pilot to fly in the night and a Multi-engine rating is obtained after flying 15 hours in a DGCA approved Multi-engine aircraft such as the DA42, Piper Seneca etc.
Many flight schools give a certain number of hours on single and multi-engine aircraft simulators as well.
The main dilemma many faces is deciding whether to do flying training in India or abroad, which can another article itself.
You can go abroad to do your flight training and there are many pros and cons of it, However after returning to India you have to clear all DGCA exams and fly the required hours to get the license converted and it takes 1-3 months, Its ideal to clear all DGCA exams and then go abroad for flying.

Obtaining a Computer Number:

A computer number is a Unique ID given to all Pilots which is an Online record of your exams and endorsements.
A computer number is obtained after filling the online application and sending DGCA the required documents such as Board verification certificates, Address, and Id proofs, 10th and 12th marks card and print out of the online application form. These documents have to be couriered to DGCA within 10 days of filling the online application at www.pariksha.dgca.gov.in.
A computer number can be obtained without the help of a flight school as well, you can obtain a computer number individually and clear the exams during your degree to get your CPL faster.


What is Radiotelephony license? (RTR)

An RTR license is issued by the Ministry of communications to transmit and receive on Air traffic control frequency. It’s a separate exam and viva that many people usually take more than one attempts to clear. It can be obtained with a lifetime validity for a cost of Rs 20,000.RTR is required to apply for FRTOL (Flight radiotelephone operator’s license) to commence flying training.
There are many private coaching classes around the country that help you clear this notorious exam as well.
The course duration for a CPL course in India can be considered an Average 12-18 months. The average cost of CPL, IR, and MER comes up to 32 lakh rupees depending on the flight school and current aviation fuel rates.

Type-Rating:

An airline operates jet aircrafts such as the Boeing 737, Airbus A320 etc. and one needs to get licensed on these aircraft and this is called Type-Rating (TR). The training is done on a full-motion simulator that replicates the actual cockpit, these simulators cost approximately $2 million.
TR usually takes 45-60 days of Ground studies and simulator sessions where you would be taught how to handle several kinds of failures, it has to be renewed every 6 months with a Type rating examiner who will check if you are capable of handling certain failures on type.
There are a few Type rating centers in India such as FSTC, CTE-Air India, CAE etc.

Airline jobs:

After you get your CPL, IR, and MER you would be eligible to apply for certain airline job vacancies. Airlines hiring fresher pilots have 2 types of vacancy
1) Non-Rated fresher vacancies:
Fresher with CPL, IR and MER along with a valid class 1 medical can apply for these vacancies.
Depending on the airline there will be a written exam followed by group discussion, aptitude test, and a personal interview.
After being selected you will be asked to pay for Type rating and the airline depending on the slots will send you for TR to their approved centers not necessarily in India. The Entire cost would be borne by you and would come up to an approximate of 25 lakh rupees.
After TR you would be trained on airline SOP(Standard operating procedures), CRM (crew resource management), MCC (multi-crew cooperation) courses followed by Base and line training after a check you will be finally released as a junior first officer.

2) Type rated zero-time vacancy
Fresher with CPL, IR, MER and Type rating on the type of aircraft specified by the airline along with a valid class 1 medical can apply for this vacancy.
The process of induction is same as above mentioned category however since TR is already done you would be directly training on airline SOP, CRM (crew resource management), MCC (multi-crew cooperation) courses followed by Base and line training after a check you will be finally released as a junior first officer.

It takes a lot of hard work, passion, dedication and a certain amount of luck to make it as an airline pilot considering the fact that it’s a very volatile industry with a lot of competition.

Thanks for reading!

Suggested article: What are red eye flight?